Killer whales have been observed in all oceans and seas of the world. Although reported from tropical and offshore waters, they occur at higher densities in colder and more productive waters, with the greatest densities found at high latitudes. Along the west coast of North America, killer whales occur along the entire Alaskan coast, in British Columbia and Washington inland waters, and along the outer coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. Seasonal and year-round occurrence has been noted for killer whales throughout Alaska and in the intracoastal waterways of British Columbia and Washington State, where pods have been labeled as ‘resident,’ ‘transient,’ and ‘offshore’ based on aspects of morphology, ecology, genetics, acoustics and behavior. Through examination of photographs of individuals recognizable by differences in dorsal fin shape and saddle patch patterns, movements of whales between geographical areas have been documented. For example, Alaskan killer whales have been observed in British Columbia, Washington and California. When born, killer whales are 2.1 to 2.4 m long and weigh up to 180 kg; by the time they are adults, males are 9.5 m and weigh at least 8 tons, and females are 7 m long and weigh up to 4 tons.
- BOWLES, A. E., D. M. GREBNER, W. B. MUSSER, J. S. NASH, and J. L. CRANCE.
2015. Disproportionate emission of bubble streams with killer whale biphonic calls: Perspectives on production and function. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137:EL165-EL170.
- MOURA, A. E., J. G. KENNY, R. R. CHAUDHURI, M. A. HUGHES, R. R. REISINGER, P. J. N. DE BRUYN, M. E. DAHLHEIM, N. HALL, and A. R. HOELZEL.
2015. Phylogenomics of the killer whale indicates ecotype divergence in sympatry. Heredity 114:48-55.
- MUSSER, W. B., A. E. BOWLES, D. M. GREBNER, and J. L. CRANCE.
2014. Differences in acoustic features of vocalizations produced by killer whales cross-socialized with bottlenose dolphins. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136:1990-2002.
- MOURA, A. E., J. G. KENNY, R. CHAUDHURI, M. A. HUGHES, A. J. WELCH, R. R. REISINGER, P. J. N. DE BRUYN, M. E. DAHLHEIM, N. HALL, and A. R. HOELZEL.
2014. Population genomics of the killer whale indicates ecotype evolution in sympatry involving both selection and drift. Mol. Ecol. 23:5179-5192. (.pdf, 1.19 MB). Online.
- Search the AFSC database for additional Killer Whale publications
- Foraging and Prey Differences Between Populations of Bigg’s Killer Whales (Mammal-eating “Transients”) in the Western and Eastern Aleutian Islands
4.06 MB Online.
- Killer whale (Orcinus orca) Depredation on the Greenland Halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) Longline Fishery in the Sea of Okhotsk
3.22 MB Online.
- How "Resident" are Resident-type Killer Whales in Alaska? New Data Show Similar Widespread Movement Patterns in the Fall
703 KB Online.
- Search the AFSC database for additional Killer Whale posters
- AT1 Transient: 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2005
- Eastern North Pacific:
- Alaska Resident: 2010, 2007, 2006, 2005
- Northern Resident: 2010, 2005, 2001, 1998
- Offshore: 2010, 2008, 2007, 2003, 2000, 1999
- Transient (currently part of the West Coast Transient stock): 2000, 1999, 1998
- Southern Resident: 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999
- Gulf of Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Bering Sea Transient: 2010, 2006, 2005
- Hawaii: 2010, 2004, 2000
- Northern Gulf of Mexico: 2012, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2005, 2003, 1995
- West Coast Transient (formerly, the Eastern North Pacific Transient stock): 2010, 2005
- Western North Atlantic: 2000, 1995