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Bowhead Whale (Balaena mysticetus)

Western Arctic bowhead whales are distributed in ice-covered waters of the Arctic and near-Arctic, generally north of 60*N and south of 75*N in the western Arctic Basin. The largest population is in the Bering Sea. The majority of the Bering Sea bowheads migrate from wintering areas in the northern Bering Sea (November to March), through the Chukchi Sea in the spring (March through June), to the Beaufort Sea where they spend much of the summer (mid-May through September) before returning to the Bering Sea in the fall (September through November) to overwinter. Most of the year, bowhead whales are closely associated with sea ice. The bowhead spring migration follows fractures in the sea ice around the coast of Alaska, generally in the shear zone between the shorefast ice and the mobile pack ice. However, during the summer, most of the population is in relatively ice-free waters in the southern Beaufort Sea. All bowheads were commercially exploited for oil and baleen in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, reducing the population significantly. Today, only subsistence hunting by a few Alaska natives occurs. Bowhead whales can reach lengths of 19.8 m and weigh up to 100 metric tons.

MML Research Recent MML Bowhead Whale Publications
  • CLARKE, J. T., M. C. FERGUSON, A. L. WILLOUGHBY, and A. A. BROWER. 2018. Bowhead and beluga whale distributions, sighting rates, and habitat associations in the western Beaufort Sea in summer and fall 2009-16, with comparison to 1982-1991. Arctic 71:115-138. https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic4713   Online.
     
  • GEORGE, J. C., D. RUGH, and R. SUYDAM. 2018. Bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus, pp. 133-135 In: B. Würsig, J. G. M. Thewissen, and K. M. Kovacs, (editors). Encyclopedia of marine mammals, 3rd edition. Academic Press, London, San Diego. 1157p. 
     
  • K. E. W. SHELDEN, J. A. MOCKLIN, K. T. GOETZ, D. J. RUGH, L. VATE BRATTSTRÖM, and N. FRIDAY. 2017. Late summer distribution of cetaceans near Barrow, Alaska: Results from aerial surveys conducted during the bowhead whale feeding ecology study, 2007–11. Mar. Fish. Rev. 79:1-22. https://doi.org/10.7755/MFR.79.2.1   Online.
     
  • DRUCKENMILLER, M. L., J. J. CITTA, M. C. FERGUSON, J. T. CLARKE, J. C. GEORGE, and L. QUAKENBUSH. 2017. Trends in sea-ice cover within bowhead whale habitats in the Pacific Arctic. Deep Sea Res. II. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2017.10.017   Online.
     
  • Search the AFSC database for additional Bowhead Whale publications
Recent MML Bowhead Whale Posters
Bowhead Whale Stock Assessment Reports
MML Education Web (these pages are targeted toward students!) Management Bowhead Whale Images Other links

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