Shellfish Assessment Program - Culturing Research
Throughout development, from early larval stages to young juveniles, crabs cultivated by
Shellfish Assessment Program scientists are used in a variety of
studies. Such studies include investigations on larval crab settlement behavior, cannibalism/predation, use of
critical habitats, as well as comparative growth studies. Experimentation with different culture containers, as
well as static and flow-through seawater systems, is also being conducted to ultimately design an optimal culture
system that will provide researchers with larvae (at various stages) for the various research projects.
The first step in the crab cultivation process is to collect larvae from individual female crabs that have been
isolated from each other. The larvae are then cultivated in 20-liter containers. Adult female crabs release
variable numbers of larvae daily over a period of time.
|Photo of red king crab glaucothoe, its 5th larval stage. Click to
There are several larval or zoea stages, each one an evolution in body morphology until the organism begins to take
on the characteristic shape of a young crab. The growth of juvenile and adult crabs is punctuated by a complex and
fascinating process called molting. Different species of crab have different numbers of zoeal stages. After
hatching out as a planktonic larva, a king crab molts 5 times, at 1-2 week intervals, before becoming a small crab.
After a few months, red king crab larvae molt to the megalops or glaucothoe stage and settle in approximately 64
days. No longer larvae, the juvenile crab settle to the bottom and hide.
Red King Crab Stock Enhancement
|NOAA Researcher Pete Cummiskey monitors red king crab densities
by searching for crab in a quadrat.
Red king crab (RKC), Paralithodes camtschaticus, is an important commercial and subsistence fishery species
in Alaska. The red king crab population in the Gulf of Alaska around Kodiak Island was fished commercially from the
1950s to the early 1980s; however, it crashed in the early 1980s and has not recovered.
Although the commercial fishery has been closed for decades, the Kodiak stock has not recovered. One potential
solution to restore local populations of RKC in Kodiak, is the stocking of hatchery reared juveniles into
recruitment-limited nursery habitats.
A collaboration among NOAA, commercial hatcheries and fishing groups, university groups, and State and Tribal
governments called the
Alaska King Crabs Research, Rehabilitation, and Biology (AKCRRAB) has formed to examine the feasibility
of such a hatchery program. Substantial preliminary work has already laid the foundation for experimental
releases and has included optimizing hatchery techniques for rearing RKC, field and laboratory experiments
on RKC behavior, feeding, and predation, and field surveys of potential release areas around Kodiak.
The Kodiak lab is in its third year of studies examining survival and growth of RKC juveniles. In 2014, we
examined the effects of density on the success of experiment releases. In 2015, we used similar methods to
explore the effects juvenile size, and season.
|A recently tethered crab (indicated by arrow) hides from predators under
a piece of kelp. Click image to enlarge.
Both of those experiments were performed on a small scale in a single location and have demonstrated that survival
rates of released juvenile crabs make it likely that enhancement could be successful.
The next step is to scale up the releases to an area that will more closely mimic what occur during
a real stock enhancement effort in a number of release areas. This will: 1) provide estimates on the spatial
variability of growth and survival of juvenile RKC, 2) identify factors that influence a site’s suitability for
enhancement, 3) provide proof-of-concept that enhancement can succeed at a realistic scale.
This will enable realistic economic analysis of red king crab stock enhancement and allow interested industry
groups to take the first steps towards commercializing the technologies developed by the AKCRRAB program.
WATCH a video about the
AKCRRAB program and the release experiments.
Ecological Competence of Cultured Crustaceans
In an ongoing literature review of marine crustacean stock enhancement, researchers are assessing if perceived
"deficiencies" acquired during hatchery culture should impede emerging stock enhancement initiatives. Numerous
examples of behavioral and morphological differences between hatchery-cultured and wild individuals exist for a
range of crustacean species; however, we submit that instances of phenotypic plasticity may be ultimately beneficial
for stock enhancement because it provides potential for improved ecological competence with adjustments to rearing
protocols. We examine how specific plastic responses can affect crustacean ecology through effects on predation,
foraging, competition, and reproduction.
For developing stock enhancement programs, we recommend consideration of patterns of plasticity expression through
exhaustive research before large-scale releases are initiated. Researchers must identify environmental factors that
cue plasticity, determine if induced responses are ecologically relevant, and examine the temporal scale on which
phenotypic plasticity operates. Researchers plan to publish findings in the peer reviewed literature.
|This color variation observed in hatchery-cultured red king crabs in an
example of phenotypic plasticity. Crustaceans are known to adjust coloration based on diet and
Shellfish Assessment Program - Culturing Research
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- PERSSELIN, S., and B. DALY. 2011. Diet and water source effects on larval red king crab
cultivation, p. 479-494. In G. H. Kruse, G. L. Eckert, R. J. Foy, R. N. Lipcius, B. Sainte-Marie,
D. L. Stram, and D. Woodby (editors), Biology and Management of Exploited Crab Populations under
Climate Change. Alaska Sea Grant Program Report AK-SG-10-01, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK.
- PERSSELIN, S. 2006. Cultivation of king crab larvae at the Kodiak Fisheries Research Center,
Kodiak, Alaska, p. 9-13. In B. G. Stevens (editor), Alaska Crab Stock Enhancement and Rehabilitation:
Workshop Proceedings. Alaska Sea Grant Program Report AK-SG-06-04, University of Alaska, Fairbanks,
- KITTAKA, J., and B. G. STEVENS. 2002. Larval culture of the king crabs Paralithodes
camtschaticus and P. brevipes, p. 189-209. In A. J. Paul, E.G. Dawe, R. Elner, G. S.
Jamieson, G. H. Kruse, R. S. Otto, B. Sainte-Marie, T. C. Shirley, and D. Woodby (editors), Crabs
in Cold Water Regions: Biology, Management, and Economics. Alaska Sea Grant College Program,
University of Alaska Fairbanks, AK-SG-02-01.
See the publications and
poster databases for